The High Contracting Parties, animated by the
purpose of giving conventional form to the postulates of the resolution
approved on 16 December 1933, by all the States represented at the Seventh
International Conference of American States, held at Montevideo, which recommended
to "the Governments of America which have not yet done so that they sign
the 'Roerich Pact', initiated by the 'Roerich Museum' in the United States,
and which has as its object the universal adoption of a flag, already designed
and generally known, in order thereby to preserve in any time of danger
all nationally and privately owned immovable monuments which form the cultural
treasure of peoples, "have resolved to conclude a Treaty with that end in
view and to the effect that the treasures of culture be respected and protected
in time of war and in peace, have agreed upon the following Articles:
Article 1. The historic monuments, museums, scientific, artistic, educational
and cultural institutions shall be considered as neutral and as such respected
and protected by belligerents.
The same respect and protection shall be due to the personnel of the institutions
The same respect and protection shall be accorded to the historic monuments,
museums, scientific, artistic, educational and cultural institutions in
time of peace as well as in war.
Art. 2. The neutrality of, and protection and respect due to, the monuments
and institutions mentioned in the preceding Article, shall be recognized
in the entire expanse of territories subject to the sovereignty of each
of the Signatory and Acceding States, without any discrimination as to the
State allegiance of said monuments and institutions. The respective Governments
agree to adopt the measures of internal legislation necessary to insure
said protection and respect.
Art. 3. In order to identify the monuments and institutions mentioned in
Article I, use may be made of a distinctive flag (red circle with a triple
red sphere in the circle on a white background) in accordance with the model
attached to this Treaty.
Art. 4. The Signatory Governments and those which accede to this Treaty
shall send to the Pan American Union, at the time of signature or accession,
or at any time thereafter, a list of the monuments and institutions for
which they desire the protection agreed to in this Treaty.
The Pan American Union, when notifying the Governments of signatures or
accessions, shall also send the list of monuments and institutions mentioned
in this Article, and shall inform the other Governments of any changes in
Art. 5. The monuments and institutions mentioned in Article 1 shall cease
to enjoy the privileges recognized in the present Treaty in case they are
made use of for military purposes.
Art. 6. The States which do not sign the present Treaty on the date it is
opened for signature may sign or adhere to it at any time.
Art. 7. The instruments of accession, as well as those of ratification and
denunciation of the present Treaty, shall be deposited with the Pan American
Union, which shall communicate notice of the act of deposit to the other
Signatory of Acceding States.
Art. 8. The present Treaty may be denounced at any time by any of the Signatory
or Acceding States, and the denunciation shall go into effect three months
after notice of it has been given to the other Signatory or Acceding States.
In witness whereof the undersigned Plenipotentiaries, after having deposited
their full powers, found to be in due and proper form, sign this Treaty
on behalf of their respective Governments, and affix thereto their seals,
on the dates appearing opposite their signatures.